|CLOSE(2)||System Calls Manual||CLOSE(2)|
LIBRARY¶Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
close() system call deletes a descriptor from the per-process object reference table. If this is the last reference to the underlying object, the object will be deactivated. For example, on the last close of a file the current seek pointer associated with the file is lost; on the last close of a socket(2) associated naming information and queued data are discarded; on the last close of a file holding an advisory lock the lock is released (see further flock(2)). However, the semantics of System V and IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (“POSIX.1”) dictate that all fcntl(2) advisory record locks associated with a file for a given process are removed when any file descriptor for that file is closed by that process.
When a process exits, all associated file descriptors are freed,
but since there is a limit on active descriptors per processes, the
close() system call is useful when a large quantity
of file descriptors are being handled.
When a process forks (see fork(2)), all
descriptors for the new child process reference the same objects as they did
in the parent before the fork. If a new process is then to be run using
execve(2), the process would normally inherit these
descriptors. Most of the descriptors can be rearranged with
dup2(2) or deleted with
before the execve(2) is attempted, but if some of these
descriptors will still be needed if the execve fails, it is necessary to
arrange for them to be closed if the execve succeeds. For this reason, the
fcntl(d, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC)”
is provided, which arranges that a descriptor will be closed after a
successful execve; the call “
0)” restores the default, which is to not close the
close() function returns the value 0 if successful; otherwise the value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.
close() system call will fail if:
- The fd argument is not an active descriptor.
- An interrupt was received.
- The underlying object did not fit, cached data was lost.
- The underlying object was a stream socket that was shut down by the peer before all pending data was delivered.
In case of any error except
supplied file descriptor is deallocated and therefore is no longer
SEE ALSO¶accept(2), closefrom(2), execve(2), fcntl(2), flock(2), open(2), pipe(2), socket(2), socketpair(2)
close() system call is expected to conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-1990 (“POSIX.1”).
close() function appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.
|December 1, 2017||Linux 4.19.0-17-amd64|